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Course Syllabi: Graduate

Organizing:
People, Power and Change

Marshall Ganz
Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

This course is designed for graduate students. It is structured around one 12 week semester, with class meeting twice a week for 90 minutes.

In democratic countries, knowledge of how to combine is the mother of all other forms of knowledge; on its progress depends that of all the others.

De Tocqueville

Introduction

A. Objectives:

To fulfill its promise, democracy must meet the challenges of equity, accountability and responsiveness. This requires an "organized" citizenry with the power to articulate and assert its interests effectively. Unfortunately, in the United States, the concerns of many citizens remain muted because of sharp declines in civic organization and citizen participation. Elsewhere, new democracies struggle to create institutions which can make effective citizen participation possible. Organizers learn to confront these challenges by revitalizing old democratic institutions and creating new ones. In this course, students learn to view social, economic and political problems from an organizer's perspective, to act on these problems using a praxis of organizing, and to use the basic tools required to design successful organizing campaigns. Particular attention will be given to principles common to community, electoral, union and issue organizing.

B. Outline:

This course focuses on how to build organizations through which people can act on their common interests. It addresses three questions: why people organize, how organizing works, and what it takes to be a good organizer. As "participant observers" students learn to use their experience as data. Students learn to "map" the power and interests at work in their community, develop leadership, motivate participation, and devise strategies to build relationships, share understanding, and construct programs through which organizing campaigns are conducted.

C. Participants:

Although developed from organizer training sessions, this course has been redesigned for graduate students with an interest in "empowerment strategies" as applied to policy making, service provision, community advocacy and electoral politics. Although "real world" organizing experience is helpful, it is not required. Students will be most successful who have a strong interest in the organization, issue or community with which they will be working.

D. Requirements:

Students base class work on volunteer service with an "organizing project" of their own choosing. This may be a project they are currently working on or a new one. Students may initiate their own project or serve with one of a wide variety of community or campus organizations. Projects require an average of 6 hours per week.

In classes which meet for 1.5 hours, twice a week for twelve weeks, students will reflect critically on their experience and observations using an organizing model drawn from the lectures and reading. Sessions alternate between discussion of new material and of student projects. Students are expected to attend all sessions, do the reading and take an active part in discussions.

Reading is assigned for only the first class meeting each week (except for the first and last weeks of the course), combines theory and practice, and averages about 100 pages per week.

At the second class meeting each week, students will submit "reflection papers" of 1 to 2 pages in which they interpret their organizing experience using concepts discussed in class, or evaluate the usefulness of the concepts. Two reflection papers may be missed - no excuse required - but the rest must be turned in. Students will take turns initiating discussion of this material.

At the end of the term students submit a 20 page final paper based on analysis of their organizing project. At midterm students submit a first draft of their final report. Evaluation will be based on the student's demonstrated ability to apply and evaluate organizing concepts in a practical setting. Final grades are based on the following: class participation and weekly reflection (50%), midterm progress report (20%), final report (30%).

E. Materials

Readings provide case studies and background to lecture/discussions. Six books are required for this course and available for purchase at the COOP and on reserve at the Kennedy School Library: Sharan B. Merriam, Case Study Research in Education, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1991. Jack L. Walker, Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1991. Steven Lukes, Power: A Radical View, Macmillan, New York, 1990. Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Vintage, New York, 1960. Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, Random House, New York, 1971. Kim Bobo, J. Kendall and S. Max, Organizing for Social Change: A Manual for Activists in the 1990s, New York, Seven Locks, 1996. Other readings are available in a PAL-177 reading packet which may be purchased at the CMDO. A supplemental list of recommended reading for those with particular interests is also provided, as is a list of available manuals and films. Two of the recommended books are also available at the COOP: Jacqueline B. Mondros and Scott M. Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, New York, Columbia University Press, 1994. Robert Fisher, Let the People Decide: Neighborhood Organizing in America, New York, Twayne, 1994.

II. Program

The following is the schedule of class meetings and reading assignments. The number of pages/week is indicated in italics beside the date. Special due dates are noted in italics.

A. Introduction to Organizing

1. Introduction: Overview of the Course (1/30) (108 pp.)

Welcome. Today we discuss the goals of the course, how they will be accomplished, what the requirements are, etc. The readings offer an historical and philosophical background to the approach we will be taking to understanding organizing.

    Aristotle, Politics, Book 1, Chapter 1-2 (pp. 1127-1130). Robert Bellah, et al, The Good Society, "Introduction: We Live Through Institutions," (p 1-18) Alexis De Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Volume II, Part II, Chapters 2-6 (pp. 506-517). Jack L. Walker, Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America, Chapter 1, (pp.1-3, pp.9-14), Chapter 2, (pp.19-40). Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 1, (pp. 3-23). Laura R. Woliver, "Mobilizing and Sustaining Grassroots Dissent", Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 52, No. 1, 1996, (pp.139-51). Lester M. Salamon, "The Rise of the Nonprofit Sector", Foreign Affairs, July, 1994, (pp.109-122). John McKnight, "Services are Bad for People", (pp. 41-44) Marshall Ganz, "What is Organizing", 1996. Charts: Course Outline, Organizing Strategies, Organizing Dilemmas
2. Introduction: The Organizing Tradition (2/4) (95+ pp.)

We begin by looking at what the organizing tradition brings to the overall scheme of public life. The readings provide accounts of how some people have organized to take action and what they accomplished.

    The Bible, Exodus, Chapters 2-6, (pp. 82-89) Numbers, Chapter 11 (pp. 216-19). Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics, Part 1, (pp. 31-61). Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, Chapter 5, "The Montgomery Bus Boycott", (p.143-205).
READ ONE OF THE THREE FOLLOWING SELECTIONS
    Robert Middlekauf, The Glorious Cause, Chapter 11, "Resolution", (pp.221-239). Dennis Dalton, Gandhi, Chapter 4, "Civil Disobedience: The Salt Satyagraha" (pp. 91-138). Margarita Lopa, "Historical Context: The Evolution of NGOs as a Social Movement" in Lopa, M.A. (ed) Singing the Same Song: Reflections of Two Generations of NGO Workers in the Philippines, (pp. 38-71).
3. Introduction: Organizing Projects (2/6) (72 pp.)

These readings discuss research methods which will help you get the most out of your project experience. Focus on the major topics: what you can learn with this kind of research, how to handle yourself, how to document your experience, how to analyze what you've documented, how to draw conclusions.

    Sharan Merriam, Case Study Research in Education, Chapter 1, "The Case Study Approach to Research Problems" (pp. 5-21), Chapter 6, "Being a Careful Observer", (pp. 87-103), Chapter 8, "The Components of Data Analysis" (pp.123-146); Chapter 10, "Dealing with Validity, Reliability, and Ethics in Case Study Research" (pp. 163 - 184) . "People Power Gets Results", Boston Globe, October, 1996, p. B24. Questions About Methodology
RECOMMENDED
    Martin Hammersly & Paul Atkinson, Ethnography: Principles in Practice, Chapter 4, "Field Relations", (pp. 77-104). Lofland & Lofland, Analyzing Social Settings, Chapter 3, "Getting In" (pp. 20-31) and Chapter 4, "Getting Along", (31-45).

B. Why People Organize Interest/Power

1. Why People Organize: Interests/Problems (2/11) (78 pp.)

We direct our focus on the world of your organizing project by asking who are the "actors" and what are their "interests"? Who are the constituency, leadership, staff, governing body, supporters, competitors, collaborators, opposition and mediators? What needs are they trying to address? What problems are they trying to solve? What resources do they need to solve these problems? And what are your "interests" in working with this project?

    Max Weber, Economy and Society, Volume I, "Types of Social Action", (pp. 24-26). Rita K. Atkinson, et al, Introduction to Psychology, Chapter 14, "Personality Theory and Assessment", (pp. 522-26). Clayton Alderfer, Existence, Relatedness and Growth, Chapter 2, "Theory", (p. 6-29) Roy G. D'Andrade, Human Motives and Cultural Models, Chapter 2, "Schemes and Motivation", (pp. 23-44). Jack L. Walker, Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America, Chapter 3, "Explaining the Mobilization of Interests," (pp. 41-55). Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, "A Word About Words", (pp. 48-62) Charts: Actors, Interests, and Resources Questions About Actors and Interests
ORGANIZING PROJECT REPORT DUE

Project Discussion: Interests (2/13)

First Reflection Paper Due: Actors and Interests Map

2. Why People Organize: Power/Solutions (2/18) (105 pp.)

We turn now to how people get the resources to act on solving the problems which affect their interests: their power. The distribution of resources among the actors relative to their interests defines their power relations with each other—autonomy, interdependence, or dependency/domination. What kinds of resources are needed to solve the problems your organization is addressing? Who controls them? What are their interests?

    Richard Emerson, "Power-Dependence Relations", ASR, 27:31-40. Steven Lukes, Power: A Radical View, Entire Book (pp. 9-57). Clarence Stone, Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta, Chapter 11 "Rethinking Community Power: Social Production vs. Social Control" (pp. 219-233). Bernard M. Loomer, "Two Kinds of Power," The D.R. Sharpe Lecture on Social Ethics, October 29, 1975, Criterion, Vol. 15, No.1, 1976 (pp. 11-29). Jean Baker Miller, Women's Growth in Connection: Writings from the Stone Center, Chapter 11, "Women and Power", (pp. 197-205). Thucydides, The Peloponessian Wars, Book V, Chapter 7, "The Sixteenth Year - the Melian Dialogue", (pp. 400-408). Charts: Power Questions About Power
RECOMMENDED
    Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 1, "Social Action Organizations and Power" (pp. 1-10). Phillip B. Heymann, The Politics of Public Management, "The Meaning of 'Resources' in a Political Setting." (pp. 145-163). John Gaventa, Power and Powerlessness: Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley, Introduction (pp. 1-32).
Project Discussion: Power (2/20)

Second Reflection Paper Due: Power, Resources and Interests Map

C. How Organizing Works: Leadership, Strategy, Motivation

1. Developing Leadership (2/25) (110 pp.)

Organizations mobilize for action through the exercise of leadership. How is leadership exercised in your project? Who are the leaders, where do they come from, how were they identified, how were they recruited, how were they trained, what do they actually do, to whom are they accountable, etc.

    James McGregor Burns, Leadership, Chapter 1, "The Power of Leadership", (p. 9-28). Ronald Heifetz, Leadership Without Easy Answers, "Values in Leadership", Chapter 1, (pp. 13-27). J. Richard Hackman and Richard E. Walton, Chapter 3, "Leading Groups in Organizations", in Designing Effective Work Groups, Paul Goodman (pp. 72-119) Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 5, "Native Leadership", (pp. 64-75.) Dr. M. L. King, A Testament of Hope, "The Drum Major Instinct", (p. 259-78) Charts: Leadership Questions About Leadership
RECOMMENDED
    Nicholas Von Hoffman, "Finding and Making Leaders". Industrial Areas Foundation, 1963, (pp. 1 -16) Belinda Robnett, "African-American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965: Gender, Leadership and Micromobilization", American Journal of Sociology, Volume 101, Number 6 (May 1996), (pp. 1661-93).
Project Discussion: Leadership (2/27)

2. Devising Strategies and Tactics (3/04) (92 pp)

Organizers use strategy to make the most of their resources. Strategy consists of three elements: (1) targeting (concentrating resources at the point they will do the most good), (2) timing (acting at the moment one's chances of success are greatest), and (3) tactics (activities which are consistent with one's capacities). This week we discuss the overall strategies most commonly employed in civic action: conflict, cooperation, service, advocacy. In subsequent weeks we will explore strategies and tactics used for building relationships, developing understanding, and carrying out programs. What is the strategy of your organizing project?

    Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 4 "Strategy" (pp. 20- 33), Chapter 5, "A Guide to Tactics" (pp. 34-42). Si Kahn, Organizing, Chapter 8 "Strategy" (pp.155-174) Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, Tactics, (p.126-36, 148-55, 158-61). Ann Costain and W. Douglas Costain, "Strategy and Tactics of the Women's Movement in the United States: the Role of Political Parties", (pp.196 -214) in The Women's Movements of the United States and Western Europe, ed. Katzenstein and Mueller. Robert Mitchell, Angela Mertig, Riley Dunlap, "Twenty Years of Environmental Mobilization: Trends Among National Environmental Organizations" (pp.11-25); in American Environmentalism: The US Environmental Movement, 1970-1990, Riley E. Dunlap and Angela G. Mertig. Charts: Strategy Questions About Strategy
RECOMMENDED
    Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 6, "Strategy Development", (pp. 130-160). Michael McClosky, "Twenty Years of Change in the Environmental Movement: An Insiders View" (pp. 77-88) in American Environmentalism: The US Environmental Movement, 1970-1990, Riley E. Dunlap and Angela G. Mertig.
Project Discussion: Strategies & Tactics (3/06)

3. Motivating Participation (3/11) (96 pp.)

Organizing requires participation to be effective. Participation depends on motivating people to take responsibility, to act. Motivation involves how we feel about things as much as what we think about them. This week we examine the dynamics of motivation. How does the organization you work with motivate those whose participation it requires?

    Dennis Chong, Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movement, Chapter 5, "Creating the Motivation to Participate in Collective Action" (pp. 90-102), Chapter 8, "Strategies of Collective Action" (pp. 173-85), Chapter 10, "Conclusion" (pp. 230-40). Susan Fiske and Shelly E. Taylor, Social Cognition, Chapter 6, "Social Schemata" (pp. 139-42, 171-81), Chapter 12, "Attitudes: Cognition and Persuasion" (pp. 340-2, 344-9, 352-55, 359-68). Ruth McKenney, Industrial Valley, "The Beginning" (pp. 25-32), "The First Sit Down" (pp. 251-270). Dr. M.L. King, "I Have A Dream", A Testament of Hope, (pp. 217-221). Charts: Motivation Questions About Motivation
RECOMMENDED
    Robert Coles, The Call to Service, Chapter 3, "Satisfactions", (pp. 68-94)
Project Discussion: Motivation (3/13)

MIDTERM REPORT DUE FRIDAY, MARCH 14

D. How Organizing Works: Relationship, Understanding, Action

Organizations are woven together from three threads drawn from the world within which they work: relationships, understanding and resources. Relationships are developed into a new community. New understandings emerge from deliberation and interpretation. Resources are mobilized and deployed as an action program.

1. Mobilizing Relationships: Building Community (3/18) (85+ pp)

This week we focus on the most fundamental element in organizing - relationship building. Through new relationships we come to understand our interests differently and discover new resources for acting upon them. This weeks readings point to different ways in which relationship building contributes to organizing.

    Robert Putnam, Making Democracy Work, Chapter 6, (pp.163-185). George C. Homans, "Social Behavior as Exchange", in Interpersonal Dynamics, Bennis, et al. (pp. 390-402). Erving Goffman, "On face-work: an analysis of ritual elements in social interaction", in Interpersonal Dynamics, Bennis, et al. (pp. 175-189). Mark Granovetter, "The Strength of Weak Ties", ASR, 78:6 (pp. 1360-78). Kris Rondeau, "A Woman's Way of Organizing", Labor Research Review #18, (pp. 45-59). Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 10, "Recruiting", (pp. 78-85). Charts: Relationships Questions About Relationships
READ ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TWO SELECTIONS
    Jacques Levy, Cesar Chavez, Book IV, Chapters 1-5, (pp. 151-181), "The Birth of the Union". Aldon Morris, "The Black Southern Student Sit-In Movement: An Analysis of Internal Organization," American Sociological Review, 46: 744-767
RECOMMENDED
    Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 3, "Recruiting Participants", (pp.130-1 60)
Project Discussion: Relationships (3/20)

2. Mobilizing Understanding: Deliberation, Interpretation, and Story Telling (4/11) (117 pp.)

Participants in community action organizations deliberate to arrive at understandings of who they are, what they do, and why they do it. They interpret this understanding, often in the form of story telling, among themselves, within their constituency, and to others who share their world. How does your organization do this? Is it done well?

    William Shakespeare, Henry V, Act IV, Scene 3, "We Happy Few", (pp. 140 -149). Ronald Reagan, "First Inaugural Address," January 2O, 1981. (7 pp.) Mario Cuomo, "Two Cities," Keynote Address to Democratic National Convention, July 17, 1984. (11 pp.) David Snow, et al; "Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation", American Sociological Review, 51, August 1986 (pp. 464-81). Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 6, "Community Traditions and Organizations", (p. 76-88). Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, "In the Beginning", (p. 98-125) Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Chapter 2 (pp. 57-74). Anthony Pratkanis and Marlene Turner, "Persuasion and Democracy: Strategies for Increasing Deliberative Participation and Enacting Social Change", in Journal of Social Issues, Volume 51, Number 1, Spring 1996 (pp. 139-152). Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 14, "Using the Media", (pp.116-123). Charts: Understanding Questions About Understanding
RECOMMENDED
    Benjamin Barber, Strong Democracy, Chapter 8, "Citizenship and Participation", (pp. 173 - 198). Mark Moore, The Power of Public Ideas, "What Makes Public Ideas Powerful", Chapter 3 (pp. 55-85). Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 5, "Issues", (pp. 96-129).
Project Discussion: Understanding (4/3)

3. Mobilizing Resources: Action Program (4/8) (90 pp.)

Community action organizations mobilize and deploy resources to carry out action programs. Some programs focus on providing services to a constituency, while others focus on making claims on behalf of it. This week we explore where action programs come from, how they are put together, and how they are carried out.

    Jacques Levy; Cesar Chavez; Prologue (pp. xxi-xxv) Pamela Oliver and Gerald Marwell, "Mobilizing Technologies for Collective Action", Chapter 11, (pp 251-270), in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, ed. Morris and Mueller. Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 4, "The Program" (pp. 53-64.) Gene Sharp, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part Two: The Methods of Nonviolent Action, Political Jiu-Jitsu at Work; Table of Contents, (pp. xii-xvi). Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 7, "Designing Actions", (pp.48-55); Chapter 20, "Grassroots Fundraising" (pp.176-83). Kennedy School Case C16-91-1034, "Orange Hats of Fairlawn: A Washington DC Neighborhood Battles Drugs." (pp. 1-18). Mary Beth Rogers, Cold Anger, Chapter 11, "Leave Them Alone. They're Mexicans", (pp. 105-126). Charts: Action Programs Questions About Action Programs
RECOMMENDED
    Kay Schlozman, Organized Interests and American Democracy, Chapter 7, "What Organized Interests Do", (pp.148-169) Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 7, "Implementing Strategy: The Action Phase", (pp.161 -187).

Project Discussion: Program (4/10)

E. Communities in Action: Organizations & Campaigns

1. Communities in Action: Organizations (4/15) (101 pp.)

Mobilized communities are structured as organizations. Structuring an organization means facing dilemmas of how to balance unity and diversity, inclusion and exclusion, responsibility and participation, leadership and accountability. How are these issues addressed in your project? How well does it work?

    Si Kahn, Organizing, Chapter 3, "Organizations", (pp. 55-77). Kim Bobo, Organizing for Social Change, Chapter 12, "Planning and Facilitating Meetings", (pp. 94-103). J. Richard Hackman, "A General Model of Group Development" (1 page chart). Richard L. Moreland, "The Formation of Small Groups", in Kendrick, C. (ed.) 1987, Group Processes, (pp. 80-105). Kenwyn Smith and David Berg, "A Paradoxical Conception of Group Dynamics", Human Relations, V40:10, 1987, (pp. 633-54). Irving Janis, "Groupthink", in Hackman, J.R. (1983), Perspectives on Behavior in Organizations, (pp. 378-384). B. Ann Bettencourt, George Dillmann, Neil Wollman, "The Intragroup Dynamics of Maintaining a Successful Grassroots Organization: A Case Study", in Journal of Social Issues, Volume 51, Number 1, 1996 (pp. 169-186). Charts: Organization Questions About Organizations
RECOMMENDED
    Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 4, "Maintaining and Deepening Member Participation", (pp. 64-95).
2. Project Discussion: Communities in Action (4/17)

3. Communities in Action: Campaigns (4/22) (choose two of the four readings)

Community action organizations carry out programs as campaigns - a rhythm of activity which focuses on a specific goal, begins slowly building a foundation, gradually gathers momentum and resources, and culminates in a peak when the campaign is won or lost. Does your organization conduct campaigns? Do the campaigns strengthen the organization? How do you know if you are winning or losing? Does it matter? Why? Why not?

    Jacques Levy, Cesar Chavez: Autobiography of La Causa, Book IV, "The Birth of the Union", Chapters 6-11, (p. 183-218), Book V, "Victory in the Vineyards", Chapters 6-14, (pp. 263-325). Peter Medoff and Holly Sklar, Streets of Hope, Chapter 3, "Don't Dump On Us: Organizing the Neighborhood" (pp. 67-89), Chapter 4, "Planning an Urban Village", (pp. 89-113). International Campaign: to be assigned International Campaign: to be assigned Campaign Planning Packet Charts: Campaigns Questions About Campaigns
RECOMMENDED
    Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 8, "Evaluating Outcomes: Victory and Defeat" (pp.187 -204).
4. Project Discussion: Campaigns (4/24)

F. Becoming a Good Organizer (4/29) (125 pp.)

This week we will reflect on organizing as a craft, art, profession, and vocation: why do we do it, why are we good at it, what about the rest of our lives, how can we continue to grow as we do it?

    Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, "The Education of the Organizer", (p. 63-80). Jacques Levy; Cesar Chavez; Book II, Chapter 11 (pp. 89-93), Book III, Prologue, Chapter 1-3 (pp. 95-114). Ronald Heifetz, Leadership Without Easy Answers, Chapter 11, "The Personal Challenge", (pp. 250-276). Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull House, Chapters 4-5, (pp. 60-89). Robert Coles, The Call to Service, Chapter 8, "Consequences", (pp. 254-84).
RECOMMENDED:
    Mondros and Wilson, Organizing for Power and Empowerment, Chapter 2, "The Organizers", (pp. 11-35).

G. Conclusion (5/1) (102 pp.)

Today we'll hear from everyone about what they have learned from the various projects in which they have been involved. What have we learned about ourselves as observers? How do these lessons link up with the broader question of the role of organizing in public life?

    Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Chapter 11 (p.190-204). Robert Putnam, "Bowling Alone: Democracy in America and the End of the 20th Century", 1994. Theda Skocpol, "Unraveling From Above", The American Prospect, March, 1996, (pp. 20-25). William Grieder, Who will tell the People?, Chapter 1O, "Democratic Promise", (pp. 222-241). Ralph Reed, Politically Incorrect, Chapter 13, "Miracle at the Grassroots" (pp.189-202); Chapter 17, "What is Right about America: How You Can Make a Difference", (pp. 249-268). Robert Wuthnow, Acts of Compassion, Chapter 9, "Envisioning a Better Society", (pp. 249-81).
RECOMMENDED:
    Ernesto Cortes, "Reweaving the Fabric: The Iron Rule and the MF Strategy for Dealing with Poverty Through Power and Politics" IAF, (pp. 1-31). John B. Judis, "The Pressure Elite: Inside the Narrow World of Advocacy Group Politics", The American Prospect, #9, Spring 1992, (pp.15-29).

III. Resources

A. Required Reading
    Saul Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals, Vintage, 1960 Saul Alinsky, Rules for Radicals, Random House, 1971 Steven Lukes, Power: A Radical View, Macmillan, 1990 Sharan B. Merriam, Case Study Research in Education, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1991 Jack L. Walker, Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1991 Kim Bobo, J. Kendall and S. Max, Organizing for Social Chance: A Manual for Activists in the 1990s, 1991, Seven Locks. CMDO PAL-177 Reader

B. Supplemental Reading

The following are accounts of organizing campaigns in a variety of settings recommended as background reading for those with particular areas of interest.

1. International

    Gandhi, Mahatma; Autobiography; (Boston: Beacon Press, 1957). Dalton, Dennis; Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent Power in Action, (New York: Columbia, 1993). Laba, Roman; The Roots of Solidarity: A Political Sociology of Poland's Working Class Democratization; (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991, Goodwyn, Lawrence; Breaking the Barrier: The Rise of Solidarity in Poland, (New York: Oxford University Press,1991). Kreisi, Hanspter, Ruud Koopmans, Jan Willem Dyvendak, and Marco G. Giugni, New Social Movements in Western Europe, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995).

2. Labor Movement/Populism

    Goodwyn, Lawrence; The Populist Moment, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978). Steinbeck, John; In Dubious Battle, (Blue Ribbon Books, New York, 1937). McKenny, Ruth; Industrial Valley, (New York: Greenwood Press, 1939). Dubovsky, Melvyn and Warren Van Tine, John L. Lewis, A Biography (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977). Cohen, Lizabeth, Making a New Deal, (London: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Geoghegan, Thomas, Which Side Are You On?: Trying to Be For Labor When It's Flat on Its Back. (Plume, 1991).

3. Civil Rights Movements

    McAdam, Doug; Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1980, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982). Morris, Aldon; Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change; (New York: Free Press, 1984). Branch, Taylor; Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988). Payne, Charles; I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995). Dittmer, John; Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi, (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995). Takaki, Ronald; Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans; (New York: Penguin, 1989). Skerry, Peter; Mexican Americans: the Ambivalent Minority, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993).
4. Political Movements
    Crawford, Alan, Thunder on the Right, (Pantheon, 1980). Gitlin, Todd; The Sixties; (New York: Bantam Books, 1989). Klatch, Rebecca E., Women of the New Right, (Temple, 1987). Hertzke, Alan; Echoes of Discontent, (Washington: CQ Press, 1993). Reed, Ralph; Politically Incorrect: The Emerging Faith Factor in American Politics, (Dallas: Word Publishing, 1994).
5. Women's Movements
    Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod and Carol McClurg Mueller; The Women's Movements of the United States and Western Europe, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987). Mansbridge, Jane; Why We Lost the ERA, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986). Feree, Myra Max; Controversy and Coalition: New Feminist Movement (New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1994).
6. Environmental Movement
    Dunlap, Riley and Angela G. Mertig; American Environmentalism: the U.S. Environmental Movement, 1970-1990; (Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis, 1992). Rosenbaum, Walter; Environmental Politics & Policy; (Washington, D.C: CQ Press, 1994).
7. Neighborhood Organizing
    Horwitt, Sanford; Let Them Call Me Rebel: Saul Alinsky; (New York: Knopf, 1989). Mondros, Jacqueline B. and Scott M. Wilson; Organizing for Power and Empowerment; (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994). Medoff, Peter and Holly Sklar, Streets of Hope (Boston: South End Press) Fisher, Robert; Let the People Decide: Neighborhood Organizing in America; (New York: Macmillan, 1994).
8. Faith Based Organizing
    National Conference of Catholic Bishops. Economic Justice for All: Pastoral Letter of Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Catholic Conference, 1986). Rogers, Mary Beth; Cold Anger: A Story of Faith and Power Politics, (Demon: University of North Texas Press, 1990). Freedman, Samuel G; Upon this Rock: The Miracles of a Black Church; (New York: Harper Collins, 1993). Robinson, Buddy and Mark G. Hanna; "Lessons for Academics from Community Organizing: A Case Study - The Industrial Areas Foundation" in Journal of Community Practice, Volume 1 (4), 1994, (pp. 63-94). Rooney, Jim; Organizing the South Bronx; (New York: State University of New York, 1995).
9. Books About Boston
    J. Anthony Lukas, Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families, (NY: Vintage Books, 1986). Jay MacLeod, Aint' No Makin' It: Aspirations and Attainment in a Low Income Neighborhood, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995). Hillel Levine, Death of An American Jewish Community: A Tragedy of Good Intentions, (NY: Free Press, 1992). Herbert Gans, The Urban Villagers: Group and Class in the Life of Italian Americans, (New York: Free Press, 1982). Thomas J. O'Connor, Building a New Boston, (Northeastern, 1993).
10. General
    Gamson, William; The Strategy of Social Protest, (Belmont: Wadswroth Publishing, 1990). Scott, James C.; Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts; (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990).
C. Manuals/Guides
    Bobo, Kim, J. Kendall and S. Max, Organizing for Social Change: A Manual for Activists in the 1990s. 1996. Seven Locks. Kahn, Si. Organizing: A Guide for Grass Roots Leaders. McGraw-Hill. 1982 Pierce, Gregory F. Augustine, Activism That Makes Sense: Congregations and Community Organization. Acta Publications. 1984. Industrial Areas Foundation Materials AFL-CIO Organizing Institute Materials Campaign Materials
D. Films
    Grapes of Wrath, Henry Fonda, Ford, 1940. The Organizer, Marcello Mastrioni, Felini, 1963. Aiinsky Series, National Film Board of Canada, 1968 Burn, Marlon Brando, Pontecorvo, 1969. Norma Rae, Sally Fields, 1972. FIST, Sylvester Stallone, 1977 Gandhi, Ben Kingsly, 1983 Eyes on the Prize, Blackside, 1986. Matewan, Sayles, 1987. Streets of Hope, Dudley Street, 1994. Freedom on My Mind, Fields, 1994. Il Postino, 1995. The Fight in the Fields, Paradigm, 1997.