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Course Syllabi

Youth and Democracy

Carmen Sirianni, Elena Bayrock, Ben Brandzel
Brandeis University

posted Spring 2003

Introduction

This course examines the roles that youth can play as active citizens in public problem solving, civic skill development, and social action in schools, communities, universities, politics, NGOs, and a range of other institutional settings.

In this course we will explore the centrality of young people to democracy and civic action broadly conceived. Our focus will be on youth ages 14-25, especially in the United States. We will examine trends in political engagement, community problem solving, and volunteering. We will examine civic education in its traditional forms, as well as innovations in experiential learning, or service learning, in various school, university, and community settings.

We will also look at other ways in which active engagement and leadership development occurs through youth serving organizations, such as YMCAs, 4-H clubs, youth service agencies, job training programs for inner-city youth, environmental organizations and environmental education associations, as well as through officially established youth commissions and councils, planning departments, departments of youth and families, school districts, and other agencies of local and state government. We will explore civic engagement on university campuses, partnerships with community organizations, and national campus organizing and service organizations.

In each arena, we will also look at public policy that supports the civic engagement of young people, from national policies on service (AmeriCorps, Learn and Serve), community development (Office of University Partnerships), teen courts and youth community policing (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention), environmental education (Office of Environmental Education, National Science Foundation), job training (YouthBuild, Conservation Corps), to state and local policies (youth commissions, healthy community/health youth programs, youth advisory boards). And we will examine strategies among multiple stakeholders to develop coherent youth development policies that include civic engagement as a core component.

Students who are engaged in active leadership or community service roles on or off campus will have the opportunity for service learning research and reflection in class presentations and written assignments. All such projects should be worked out with the instructors.

This course builds upon an 18-month team research project that Professor Sirianni conducted with undergraduates Elena Bayrock and Ben Brandzel (and other graduate and undergraduate students), whose contributions were essential to developing the research base, as well as developing strategies for increasing youth civic engagement in the U.S. that involved a larger group of several hundred other researchers, practitioners, adult and youth leaders from around the country. We will thus utilize team teaching collaboration among the three of us, as well as facilitate active collaboration from students in the course on projects and presentations. Professor Sirianni is solely responsible for the assignment of all grades.

Required Texts

Several books will be available at the bookstore. Other articles and reports are available on the web or will be photocopied for class, and students will be assessed a photocopying charge (estimated at $40). Further Resources are also listed after the formal syllabus to aid in research and projects. Those available at the bookstore are:

James Miller, “Democracy is in the Streets”: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago (Harvard University Press edition, 1994).

Anne Colby, Thomas Ehrlich, Elizabeth Beaumont, and Jason Stephens, Educating Citizens: Preparing America's Undergraduates for Lives of Moral and Civic Responsibility (Jossey Bass 2003).

Course Requirements

Students are expected to do readings before coming to class and to be able to participate in class discussions and presentations. Students should make three (3) copies of all assignments so that each member of the teaching team can read and comment on them. The final grade will be based on several components:

1. Citizen Autobiographies, due Friday Jan 24: 3 pages. These are reflection pieces on your own development as an informed and contributing citizen (regardless of country of origin or formal citizenship status in U.S.). It should include family socialization, civic education (in school, through youth groups, etc), volunteering, activism in school, community, and/or politics. It should reflect on opportunities to develop civic skills, attitudes, and action, as well as perceived barriers. We will do one-on-one relationship building and story telling exercises to start the process of reflection. 10%.

2. Midterm essays/projects, due Feb 28 (10 pages total): 30%

3. Final essays/projects (15 pages), due Thurs May 1 for graduating seniors, and Thurs May 8 for all others: 45%

4. Class participation and presentations: 15%

If you are a student who needs academic accommodations because of a documented disability, you should contact Prof. Sirianni, and present your letter of accommodation, as soon as possible. If you have questions about documenting a disability or requesting academic accommodations you should contact Assistant Dean Laura Lyndon in Undergraduate Academic Affairs at x63470. Letters of accommodations should be presented at the start of the semester to ensure provision of accommodations. Accommodations cannot be granted retroactively.

Schedule of Topics

Youth Civic Engagement in a Democracy

Jan 14-24

What is democracy and what forms of democratic action are available to citizens? What role do youth now play in the formation of a democratic culture and democratic action, and what role can they and should they play? In what ways has youth civic engagement declined or increased in the United States over the last half century? What are life cycle and true generational effects in participation gaps among DotNets, GenXers, Boomers, and Matures (pre-WWII)? What factors might explain some of the differences and trends? What are emerging agendas for strengthening the civic engagement of young people?

Required reading

John Dewey, "The Democratic Conception in Education" and "Vocational Aspects of Education," chapters 7 and 23 of Democracy and Education.

John Dewey, "The School as Social Center." (John Dewey: The Middle Works, vol. 2, ed. J.A. Boydston (Univ. of Southern Illinois Press, 1976).

James Madison, The Federalist no.10 and no. 51

Harry Boyte and Nancy Kari, "Commonwealth Democracy," Dissent (Fall 1997), 41-50.

Scott Keeter, Cliff Zukin, Molly Andolina, Krista Jenkins, The Civic and Political Health of the Nation: A Generational Portrait (Center for Research on Civic Learning and Engagement, University of Maryland, September 2002): www.civicyouth.org/research/products/youth_index.htm (download pdf file: Civic_and_Political_Health.pdf)

January 24 (Friday): Citizen autobiographies due, 2-3 pages

Participatory Democracy and Student Movements: Comparing the 1960s to Today

Jan. 28-Feb 11

Participatory democracy was central to student movements of the 1960s, including Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and many feminist organizations. What meanings did "participatory democracy" and the "beloved community" have in these movements and how did these ideas play out in practice? What lessons do student movements of the past have for today’s university students?

Students will examine and present case studies of contemporary campus organizing and service groups, including national organizations with campus leadership development programs, such as the NAACP, United States Student Association, National Student Campaign Against Hunger and Homelessness, Habitat for Humanity, Feminist Majority Leadership Alliance, National Council of La Raza, Student Environmental Action Coalition, Sierra Student Coalition, Youth Vote Coalition, Oxfam America, Alpha Phi Omega, Hillel, Action Without Borders, Campus Outreach Opportunities League, United Students Against Sweatshops.

Required Readings

James Miller, “Democracy is in the Streets”: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago (Harvard University Press edition, 1994).

Emily Stoper, "The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee: The Rise and Fall of a Redemptive Organization," Journal of Black Studies 8:1 (Sept 1977).

Carmen Sirianni, "Learning Pluralism: Democracy and Diversity in Feminist Organizations," in Critical Studies in Organization and Bureaucracy, eds. Frank Fischer and Carmen Sirianni (Temple University Press, 1994), 554-76 (reprinted from Democratic Community: NOMOS XXX).

Feb 14-28: Renewing the Civic Mission of Higher Education

What is the civic mission of higher education? How can colleges and universities deepen their civic mission? What contributions can service learning make? How can universities and communities form productive partnerships that enhance learning and community development? What contributions can Campus Compact's National Student Civic Engagement Campaign make?

Required Readings

Anne Colby, Thomas Ehrlich, Elizabeth Beaumont, and Jason Stephens, Educating Citizens (Jossey Bass 2003).

Thomas Ehrlich and Elizabeth Hollander. 1999. Presidents' Fourth of July Declaration on the Civic Responsibility of Higher Education, www.compact.org/presidential/plc/plc-declaration.html
endorsed by the Presidential Leadership Colloquium convened by Campus Compact and the American Council of Education,

Campus Assessment of Civic Responsibility. www.compact.org/presidential/plc/assessment.html

Sarah Long, The New Student Politics: The Wingspread Statement on Student Civic Engagement (Campus Compact, 2002). (www.actionforchange.org/getinformed/nsp-download.html )

Selected case studies from various sources, including:

David J. Maurasse, Beyond The Campus: How Colleges and Universities Form Partnerships with Their Communities (New York: Routledge, 2001).

Edward Zlotkowski, ed., Successful Service Learning Programs: New Models of Excellence in Higher Education (Anker 1998).

Raise Your Voice: The National Student Civic Engagement Campaign: www.actionforchange.org (see for resource guides on mapping campus assets and barrier for student engagement, facilitating campus and community dialogues; activities for National Student Civic Engagement Week, February 16-22, 2003; and a list of national student organizations working on various issues).

Feb 28: midterm essays due

March 3-7: Winter Break

Civic Education and Service Learning in High School and Middle School

March 11-18

How do middle school and especially high school students learn about politics and community, and how do they develop skills and “habits of the heart” for long-term participation? What does the evidence show about the relative impact of traditional civic education, community service, and service learning?

Required Reading

James Youniss and Miranda Yates. 1997. Community Service and Social Responsibility in Youth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Learning in Deed: www.learningindeed.org

National Commission on Service Learning Final Report: www.learningindeed.org/slcommission/reportopt.html

Community Youth Development and Youth Organizing

March 21-April 16

The emergence of the “community youth development” (CYD) approach. How and why has the youth development field been shifting from a “deficits” (youth as having bundles of problems) to an “assets” approach? Where does youth civic engagement fit among the “developmental assets” that youth need and that communities can supply? How have some youth service organizations been reinventing themselves to engage youth in active partnerships with adults in community problem solving? How can city governments institutionalize youth participation in policymaking and planning?

Required Readings

General CYD Approach:

Della M. Hughes and Susan P. Curnan, "Towards Shared Prosperity: Change-Making in the CYD Movement," CYD Anthology 2002 (www.cydjournal.org/contents.html )

Merita Irby, Thaddeus Ferber, and Karen Pittman. With Joel Tolman and Nicole Yohalem 2001. Youth Action: Youth Contributing to Communities, Communities Supporting Youth. Community and Youth Development Series, volume 6. Takoma Park, MD: The Forum for Youth Investment, International Youth Foundation.

New Directions for Youth Development 96 (winter 2003), edited by Milbrey McLaughlin, et al. (Youth Civic Engagement)

The Citywide Youth Commission:

Carmen Sirianni, “The Citywide Youth Commission as a Model for Institutionalizing Youth Participation in Policymaking and Planning: A Comparative Analysis of Hampton, San Francisco, and Boston” (draft report excerpt, 2002).

The New Girls Movement

P. Catlin Fullwood. 2001. The New Girls Movement: Implications for Youth Programs. New York, NY: Collaborative Fund for Health Girls, Healthy Women and Ms. Foundation for Women.

Teen Courts:

Butts, Jeffrey A. and Janeen Buck. 2000. "Teen Courts: A Focus on Research." Juvenile Justice Bulletin (October). Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Godwin, Tracy. 2000. "The Role of Restorative Justice in Teen Courts: A Preliminary Look." Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Youth Services Agencies:

Carolyn Boyes-Watson, “Healing the Wounds of Street Violence: Peacemaking Circles and Community Youth Development,” CYD Journal 2:4 (Fall 2001), 16-21.

Jean Thomases Smith, “CBO Schools: Reinventing High School Education,” CYD Journal 2:3 (Summer 2001), 6-13.

National Multi-tiered Youth Associations:

Carmen Sirianni, “Reinventing Civic Engagement in National Multi-tiered Associations: A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Change Strategies in the YMCA of the USA and the National 4-H Council” (2002 manuscript).

National 4-H Council. 2002. The National Conversation on Youth Development in the 21st Century: Final Report. Chevy Chase, MD: National 4-H Council: www.4hcentennial.org/conversations/s2/nation.asp (download 44-page pdf file)

Beacon Schools:

Silber, Judith. 1997. Beacons: A Union of Youth and Community Development: Case Study Review. New York and Baltimore: Ford Foundation and International Youth Foundation.

Walker, Karen E. and Amy J.A. Arbreton. 2001. Working Together to Build Beacon Centers in San Francisco: Evaluation Findings from 1998-2000. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.

Youth/Adult Partnerships:

Zeldin, Shepherd, Annette Kusgen McDaniel, Dmitri Topitzes, and Matt Calvert. 2000. Youth in Decision Making: A Study on the Impacts of Youth on Adults and Organizations. Chevy Chase, MD: National 4-H Council/Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development, and University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Youth Leadership in Job Training and Community Development

Stoneman, Dorothy and Fatima Marouf. 1999 “YouthBuild.” In Marion Pines, ed. Making Connections: Youth Program Strategies for a Generation of Challenge. Baltimore: Sar Levitan Center for Social Policy Studies. Pages 9-28.

Bennett, Antoine and Holladay Weiss. 1999. “Developing Young Leaders at YouthBuild.” New Designs for Youth Development 15:1.

Selz, Kathleen. 1999. “Youth Conservation and Service Corps.” In Marion Pines, ed. Making Connections: Youth Program Strategies for a Generation of Challenge. Baltimore: Sar Levitan Center for Social Policy Studies. Pages 29-41.

YouthBuild: http://www.youthbuildusa.org

Youth Organizing: Social Justice and Identity

Hanh Cao Yu, et al. 2003. Youth Leadership Development Initiative: Final Report to the Ford Foundation. Oakland: Social Policy Research Associates.

April 17-24: Spring Break
April 25: Study Day
April 29: Interactive group evaluation, formal/confidential class evaluation
Final essays/projects due:
Graduating seniors: May 1
All others: May 8

Further Resources

Youth Civic Engagement in a Democracy: General

Rahn, Wendy M. and John E. Transue. 1998. "Social Trust and Value Change: The Decline of Social Capital in American Youth, 1976-1995," Political Psychology 19(3):545-565.

Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone, chapter 14: From Generation to Generation.

Schlozman, Kay Lehman, Sidney Verba, Henry Brady and Jennifer Erkulwater. 1999. Why Can't They Be Like We Were? Understanding the Generation Gap in Participation. Conducted for Do Something, Inc. http://www.dosomething.org/connections/research/paper3/default.htm

National Association of Secretaries of State (NASS). 1999a. New Millennium Project: American Youth Attitudes on Politics, Citizenship, Government, and Voting. http://www.nass.org/nass99/execsum.html.

Carmen Sirianni, “Volunteering –- Then and Now,” Brookings Review 20:4 (Fall 2002), and essays in this United We Serve issue by E.J. Dionne, Harris Wofford, Paul Light, Bridgeland/Goldsmith/Lenkowsky.

Boyte, Harry. 2001. "A Tale of Two Playgrounds." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association. San Francisco.

Participatory Democracy and Student Movements

Francesca Poletta, Freedom is an Endless Meeting: Democracy in American Social Movements (University of Chicago Press, 2002).

Klatch, Rebecca. 1999. A Generation Divided. The New Left, The New Right, and the 1960s. Berkeley: University of California Press.
McAdam, Doug. 1988. Freedom Summer: The Idealists Revisited. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fendrich, James Max. 1993. Ideal Citizens: The Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement. Albany: SUNY Press

Klein, Naomi. 1999. NO LOGO Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies. New York: Picador/St. Martin's Press.

Contemporary National Campus Organizations:

Feminist Majority Leadership Alliance: www.feministcampus.org
Campus Outreach Opportunities League: www.cool2serve.org
NAACP Youth and College program: www.NAACP.org/work/youth_college/youth_college.shtml
National Student Campaign Against Hunger and Homelessness: www.nscahh.org
United States Student Association: www.usstudents.org
National Council of La Raza, Leadership Development program: www.nclr.org/policy/lead.html
United Students Against Sweatshops: www.usasnet.org
Student Public Interest Research Groups: www.studentpirgs.org
Votes for Students: www.votesforstudents.org
National Youth Advocacy Coalition: www.nyacyouth.org
Action Without Borders: www.Idealist.org
Alpha Phi Omega: www.apo.org
College Democrats of America: www.collegedems.com
College Republicans National Committee: www.crnc.org
Student Environmental Action Coalition: www.seac.org
Youth Vote Coalition: www.youthvote.org
Rock the Vote: www.rockthevote.org
Click Drive: www.povertyfighters.com/Oxfam/OxfamIndex.cfm
Oxfam America, Youth Action program: www.oxfamamerica.org/involved/art1532.html
Habitat for Humanity, Campus Chapters and Youth Programs: www.habitat.org/ccyp
Student Global AIDS Campaign: www.fightglobalaids.org
Sierra Student Coalition: www.ssc.org
Massachusetts Student PIRG: www.masspirg.org/student
Center for Environmental Citizenship: www.envirocitizen.org

Renewing the Civic Mission of Higher Education

Thomas Ehrlich, ed., Civic Responsibility and Higher Education (American Council on Education and Oryx Press, 2000).

Robert Bringle et al., Colleges and Universities as Citizens (Allyn and Bacon 1999).

Sylvia Hurtado, "Diversity and Higher Education," Harvard Educatioanl Review (fall 2002). Plus additional papers from Diverse Democracy Project: www.umich.edu/~divdemo

Edward Zlotkowski, ed., Successful Service Learning Programs: New Models of Excellence in Higher Education (Anker 1998).

Philip Nyden et al., Building Community: Social Science in Action (Pine Forge Press, 1997).

Avis Vidal, Nancy Nye, Christopher Walker, et al., Lessons from the Community Outreach Partnership Center Program (Urban Institute, 2002): http://www.oup.org/researchandpubs/pubs/lessonslearned/cover.pdf.

Barbara Holland, Characteristics of 'Engaged Institutions' and Sustainable Partnerships, and Effective Strategies for Change (March 2001): www.oup.org/researchandpubs/lit.html

Metropolitan Universities 13:1 (January 2002): Independent Institutions and Their Urban Missions, Guest Editor, Michele Gilliard.

Sherril Gelmon, Elizabeth Holland, Amy Driscoll et al., Assessing Service Learning and Civic Engagement (Campus Compact 2001).

Carolyn O’Grady, ed., Integrating Service Learning and Multicultural Education in Colleges and Universities (Erlbaum, 2000).

Carolyn Jacoby and Associates, Service Learning in Higher Education: Concepts and Practices (Jossey Bass 1996).

Curricula, action guides and other resources:

Raise Your Voice: The National Student Civic Engagement Campaign: www.actionforchange.org

Campus Ecology, National Wildlife Federation: www.nwf.org/campusecology

Richard Battistoni, Civic Engagement Across the Curriculum (Campus Compact 2002).

Kerissa Heffernan, Fundamentals of Service-Learning Course Construction (Campus Compact, 2001).

Campus Compact (www.compact.org ): extensive resources on service learning and student civic engagement

Office of University Partnerships, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (www.oup.org ): Community Outreach Partnership Centers (COPC) program.

Civic Education and Service Learning in Schools

Project 540: www.project540.org
Public Achievement: www.publicachievement.org
Do Something: www.dosomething.org
Learning in Deed: www.learningindeed.org
CIRCLE (Center for Information and research on Civic Learning and Engagement): www.civicyouth.org
National Alliance for Civic Education: www.cived.net
Earth Force: www.earthforce.org
North American Association for Environmental Education: www.naaee.org
Center for Civic Education: www.civiced.org
Close Up Foundation: www.closeup.org
Constitutional Rights Foundation: www.crf-usa.org
National Council of the Social Studies: www.ncss.org
Street Law: www.streetlaw.org
Youth Leadership Initiative: www.youthleadership.net
CYD Journal: Service Learning Edition, Alan Melchior, ed, Spring/Summer 2002): www.cydjournal.org
Education Commission of the States, National Center for Learning and Citizenship: www.ecs.org (search: service learning)

Further research

William A. Galston, "Political Knowledge, Political Engagement, and Civic Education," Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 4, 2001 Annual Reviews: www.civicyouth.org/research/products/survey_articles.htm (pdf file).

Learning in Deed: Report to the Kellogg Foundation (Kellogg Foundation, 2002).

Education Commission of the States and Learning In Deed, Learning That Lasts: How Service-Learning Can Become an Integral Part of Schools, States and Communities (September 2002).

Richard Niemi and Jane Junn, Civic Education: What Makes Students Learn? (Yale University Press, 1999).

Judith Torney-Purta, "The School's Role in Developing Civic Engagement: A Study of Adolescents in Twenty-Eight Countries," Applied Developmental Science 6:4 (2002), 203-12.

Judith Torney-Purta, et al., Citizenship and Education in Twenty-Eight Countries (Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, 2001).

Janet Eyler and Dwight Giles, Jr., Where’s the Learning in Service Learning? (Jossey Bass1999).

Sheila Mann and John Patrick, eds., Education for Civic Engagement in Democracy (ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies, 2000).

Grant Reeher and Joseph Camarano, eds., Education for Citizenship: Ideas and Innovations in Political Learning (Rowman and Littlefield, 1997).

Yates, Miranda and James Youniss. 1996a. "A Developmental Perspective on
Community Service in Adolescence," Social Development 5(1), 85-111.

Yates, Miranda and James Youniss. 1996b. "Community Service and Political-Moral Identity in Adolescents," Journal of Research on Adolescents 6(3), 271-284.

Yates, Miranda and James Youniss. 1998. "Community Service and Identity Development in Adolescence," Journal of Social Issues 54(3), 495-512.

Youniss, James, Jeffrey A. McClellan, and Miranda Yates. 1997. "What We Know About Engendering Civic Identity," American Behavioral Scientist 40:5 (March/April: 620-31.

McLeod, Jack. 2000. "Media and Civic Socialization of Youth," Journal of Adolescent Health 27:2, 45-51.

Moore, Cynthia W. and Joseph P. Allen. 1996. "The Effects of Volunteering on the Young Volunteer," The Journal of Primary Prevention 17(2):231-258.
Morrow, V. 1999. "Conceptualizing Social Capital in Relation to the Well-Being of Children and Young People: A Critical Review," Sociology Review 47:744-765.

Smith, E. S. 1999. "The Effects of Investments in the Social Capital of Youth on Political and Civic Behavior in Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Analysis," International Society of Political Psychology 20:3, 553-580.

France, Alan. 1998. "'Why Should We Care?': Young People, Citizenship and Questions of Social Responsibility," Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1. pp. 97-111.

Janoski, Thomas, March Musick, and John Wilson. 1998. "Being Volunteered? The Impact of Social Participation and Pro-Social Attitudes on Volunteering," Sociological Forum 13:495-519.

Community Youth Development and Youth Organizing

CYD Journal: www.cydjournal.org. Also available of center for Youth and Communities, Brandeis University (60 Turner Street, across rail tracks, 2nd floor.
YMCA of the USA Civic Engagement Project: www.ymcacivicengagement.org
National 4-H Council: www.fourhcouncil.edu . See especially National 4-H Council. 2002. The National Conversation on Youth Development in the 21st Century: Final Report. Chevy Chase, MD: National 4-H Council (in pdf file).
National Youth Advocacy Coalition: www.nyacyouth.org
National Network for Youth: www.nn4youth.org
YouthBuild USA: www.youthbuildusa.org
Alternatives, Inc.: www.altinc.org
San Francisco Youth Commission: www.ci.sf.ca.us/youth_commission
Coleman Advocates: www.colemanadvocates.org
Youth Leadership Institute: www.yli.org
Boston Mayor's Youth Council: www.bostonyouthzone.com/resources/myc/default3.asp
Center for Youth as Resources: www.cyar.org
Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development: www.theinnovationcenter.org
LISTEN, Inc: www.lisn.org
Student Conservation Association: www.sca-inc.org
Youth On Board: www.youthonboard.org
YouthNOISE: www.youthNOISE.com
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network: www.glsen.org
Co/Motion at Alliance for Justice: www.comotionmakers.org
At The Table: www.atthetable.org

Further Research

Constance Flanagan and Nakesha Faison, "Youth Civic Development: Implications of Research for Social Policy and Programs," Social Policy Report XV:1 (2001): www.civicyouth.org/research/products/survey_articles.htm (pdf file)

Tolman, Joel and Karen Pittman. 2001. Youth Acts, Community Impacts: Stories of Youth Engagement with Real Results. Community and Youth Development Series, volume 7. Takoma Park, MD: The Forum for Youth Investment, International Youth Foundation.

Della M. Hughes and Susan P. Curnan 2000. "Community Youth Development: A Framework for Action," CYD Journal 1:1 (winter), 7-13.

John Terry, ed., CYD Anthology 2002 (Institute for Just Communities, 2002).

Youniss, James. forthcoming. Changing the Public Perception of Youth: From Disparagement to Investment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Eccles, Jacquelynne and Jennifer Appleton Gootman. 2002. Community Programs to Promote Youth Development. Report of the Board on Children, Youth and Families of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, chapter 5, “The Landscape of Community Programs for Youth.”

Wheeler, Wendy. 2000. “Emerging Organizational Theory and the Youth Development Organization.” Applied Developmental Science 4 (supplement 1), 47-54.

"Principles of Vital Practice for Youth and Civic Development." 1996. Wingspread Journal (Autumn): http://www.johnsonfdn.org/library/journal/v18n4/principles.html.

Mullahey, Ramona, Yve Susskind, and Barry Checkoway. 1999. Youth Participation in Community Planning. American Planning Association, Planning Advisory Service, Report Number 486.

Byner, John, Lynn Chisolm, and Andy Furlong (SP?). 1997. Youth, Citizenship. And Social Change in a European Context. London: Ashgate.

Benson, Peter L., Nancy Leffert, Peter C. Scales, and Dale A. Blyth. 1998. "Beyond the 'Village' Rhetoric: Healthy Communities for Children and Adolescents," Applied Developmental Science 2:3, 139-59.

Benson, Peter L. 1997. All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do to Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cahill, Michelle 1997. Youth Development and Community Development: Promises and Challenges of Convergence. New York and Baltimore: Ford Foundation and International Youth Foundation.

Flanagan, Constance A., Jennifer Boes, Britta Jonsson, Beno Csapo, and Elena Sheblanova. 1998. "Ties that Bind: Correlates of Adolescents' Civic Commitments in Seven Countries," Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 54, No. 3. pp. 457-475.

Hahn, Andrew B. and Gordon Raley. 1998. "Youth Development on the Path Toward Professionalization," Nonprofit Management and Leadership 8:4 (summer), 387-401.

National Collaboration for Youth. 2000. Younger Americans Act Legislative Language. For 106th Congress, second session. National Youth Development Information Center: www.nydic.org/YAALegislative6600.html.

Silber, Judith. 1997. Beacons: A Union of Youth and Community Development: Case Study Review. New York and Baltimore: Ford Foundation and International Youth Foundation.

Calvert, Matthew, Shepherd Zeldin, and Amy Weisenbach. 2002. Youth Involvement for Community, Organizational, and Youth Development: Directions for Research, Evaluation, and Practice. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin and Innovation center for Community and Youth Development/Tides Center.

Armistead, P. Jefferson and Matthew B. Wexler. 1997. Community Development and Youth Development: The Potential of Convergence. New York: Ford Foundation and International Youth Foundation.

Finn, Janet L. and Barry Checkoway. 1998. "Young People as Competent Community Builders: A Challenge to Social Work," Social Work 43:4, 335-45.

Some curricula and action guides

Bass, Melissa. 1999. Public Adventures: An Active Citizenship Curriculum for Youth. Minneapolis: 4-H Cooperative Curriculum System.

________. 1995. By the People: An AmeriCorps Citizenship and Service Training Guide. Minneapolis: Minnesota Extension Service.

Godwin, Tracy, with David J. Steinhart and Betsy A. Fulton. 2000. Peer Justice and Youth Empowerment: An Implementation Guide for Teen Court Programs. Lexington, KY: National Youth Court Center.

Cindy Carlson and Elizabeth Sykes. 2001. Shaping the Future: Working Together, Changing Communities. A Manual on How to Start or Improve Your Own Youth Commission. Hampton, VA: Hampton Coalition for Youth.

Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development and National 4-H Council. 2001. Building Community: A Toolkit for Youth and Adults in Charting Assets and Creating Change.

National 4-H Council, 1997. Creating Youth/Adult Partnerships: Training Curricula for Youth, Adults, and Youth/Adult Teams. Chevy Chase, MD: National 4-H Council.

Institute for Youth, Education, and Families, National League of Cities. N.d. Promoting Youth Participation: Action Kit for Municipal Leaders. Washington, DC: National League of Cities.

Stoneman, Dorothy. 2000. Leadership Development: A Handbook from YouthBuild USA and the Youth Action Program and Homes, Inc. Second edition. Somerville, MA: YouthBuild USA.

Youth Leadership Institute. 2001. Tools for Social Change: A Public Policy Manual. San Francisco: Youth Leadership Institute.

Youth Leadership Institute. 2001. Planning for Action: A Youth Initiated Projects Manual. San Francisco: Youth Leadership Institute.

Dingerson, Leigh and Sarah H. Hay. 1998. Co/Motion: Guide to Youth-Led Social Change. Washington, DC: Alliance for Justice.

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